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War and Peace in the Nuclear Age; Education of Robert McNamara, The; Ike Rallies NATO

Part of War and Peace in the Nuclear Age.


President Eisenhower becomes the first U.S. President to visit Paris since 1919 as he arrives for the NATO conference of heads of state. He and Prime Minister MacMillan set the tone of the parley as they receive a warm welcome from Paris.

License Clip
War and Peace in the Nuclear Age
Education of Robert McNamara, The
Program Number



Ike Rallies NATO

Series Description

The first atomic explosion in the New Mexico desert on July 16, 1945, changed the world forever. This series chronicles these changes and the history of a new era. It traces the development of nuclear weapons, the evolution of nuclear strategy, and the politics of a world with the power to destroy itself.

In thirteen one-hour programs that combine historic footage and recent interviews with key American, Soviet, and European participants, the nuclear age unfolds: the origin and evolution of nuclear weapons; the people of the past who have shaped the events of the present; the ideas and issues that political leaders, scientists, and the public at large must confront, and the prospects for the future. Nuclear Age highlights the profound changes in contemporary thinking imposed by the advent of nuclear weapons. Series release date: 1/1989

Program Description

In the 1960’s Secretary of Defense Robert Mcnamara confronts the possibility of nuclear war and changes his views on questions of strategy and survival.

McNamara was Secretary of Defense for Presidents Kennedy and Johnson from 1961 to 1968. By the 1960’s the Soviets’ increased nuclear capabilities raised disturbing questions. What would the United States do if attacked? American strategy had been “massive retaliation.” But, as McNamara explains, it became increasingly apparent to the Soviets that the US was unlikely to respond. If the United States did launch a nuclear attack on the Soviet Union, the remaining Soviet forces would destroy the US. McNamara’s Defense Department developed a new strategy. “Flexible response” was based on a “ladder of escalation” from conventional to nuclear options. But by 1967, McNamara, who tried to create rules for limited nuclear war, concluded, “The blunt fact is that neither... can attack the other without being destroyed in retaliation. And it is precisely this ... that provides us both with the strongest possible motives to avoid a nuclear war.”



Asset Type

Stock footage

Media Type


North Atlantic Treaty Organization
United States
Global Affairs
War and Conflict
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David), 1890-1969 (Guest)
Herlihy, Ed (Narrator)
Macmillan, Harold, 1894-1986 (Guest)
Rights Summary

In perpetuity ; Public Domain Rights Holder: NARA

Chicago: “War and Peace in the Nuclear Age; Education of Robert McNamara, The; Ike Rallies NATO,” 12/16/1957, GBH Archives, accessed May 13, 2021,
MLA: “War and Peace in the Nuclear Age; Education of Robert McNamara, The; Ike Rallies NATO.” 12/16/1957. GBH Archives. Web. May 13, 2021. <>.
APA: War and Peace in the Nuclear Age; Education of Robert McNamara, The; Ike Rallies NATO. Boston, MA: GBH Archives. Retrieved from
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