War and Peace in the Nuclear Age; Zero Hour; Interview with Michael Carver, 1987
Part of War and Peace in the Nuclear Age.
Career military officer Lord Michael Carver reached the top ranks of the British army, serving as Chief of both the General Staff (1971-1973) and the Defence Staff (1973-1976), and attaining the rank of Field Marshall. In the interview he explains that the main problem with flexible response is that it fails to take into account what the enemys response is likely to be. His skepticism about tactical weapons, he recounts, dates back to the 1950s. On the strategic level, he understands the importance of the nuclear deterrent but says it would be criminally irresponsible to assume that one sides first use would be met with only a limited response. He takes exception to Britains assumption of the responsibility of maintaining an independent strategic strike force. He also faults NATO for consistently underestimating soviet missile and delivery capabilities. The pending INF agreement is welcome but not something that he says excites him. He belittles the utility of military exercises that assume nuclear clashes. On the other hand, he recalls that nuclear issues were not a particularly hot issue when he was in charge of the army. He closes by explaining the paradox that each side in a nuclear conflict must behave as if it is willing to use its arsenal when all fully realize they will be worse off than if they avoid their use.
- War and Peace in the Nuclear Age
- Zero Hour
- Program Number
Interview with Michael Carver, 1987
- Series Description
The first atomic explosion in the New Mexico desert on July 16, 1945, changed the world forever. This series chronicles these changes and the history of a new era. It traces the development of nuclear weapons, the evolution of nuclear strategy, and the politics of a world with the power to destroy itself.
In thirteen one-hour programs that combine historic footage and recent interviews with key American, Soviet, and European participants, the nuclear age unfolds: the origin and evolution of nuclear weapons; the people of the past who have shaped the events of the present; the ideas and issues that political leaders, scientists, and the public at large must confront, and the prospects for the future. Nuclear Age highlights the profound changes in contemporary thinking imposed by the advent of nuclear weapons. Series release date: 1/1989
- Program Description
President Reagan and Soviet Secretary Gorbachev sign the INF Agreement to eliminate an entire class of nuclear weapons from Europe. No one had expected the European Missile Crisis to end this way.
The story begins in 1979, when the Western Allies were worried about the Soviet Union’s buildup of SS-20 nuclear missiles aimed at Western Europe. Under pressure from the Carter Administration, NATO issued a threat, if the SS-20s were not removed, NATO would install new American missiles in Europe. The threat revived the dormant anti-nuclear movement in Western Europe, giving them an anti-American tone. In 1981, President Reagan made a proposal that the US would cancel deployment of the missiles if the Soviet Union would dismantle all the intermediate range missiles it had pointed at Europe. This was the “zero-zero” option. The Soviet Union was entering a period of change with three leaders dying in three years. In 1986 Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev offered to accept the “zero-zero” option and in 1987 the INF agreement was signed.
- Asset Type
- Media Type
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization
- McNamara, Robert S., 1916-2009
- Trident (Weapons systems)
- Great Britain
- Polaris (Missile)
- Nuclear arms control
- Schmidt, Helmut, 1918 Dec. 23-
- Tactical nuclear weapons
- Nuclear warfare
- Healey, Denis
- SS-20 Missile
- Nuclear weapons
- Soviet Union
- Global Affairs
- War and Conflict
- Carver, Michael, 1915-2001 (Interviewee)
- Publication Information
- WGBH Educational Foundation
- Chicago: “War and Peace in the Nuclear Age; Zero Hour; Interview with Michael Carver, 1987,” 11/11/1987, WGBH Media Library & Archives, accessed October 26, 2016, http://openvault.wgbh.org/catalog/V_3AD67E7A38374AFC9C2CBBF58EA2790F.
- MLA: “War and Peace in the Nuclear Age; Zero Hour; Interview with Michael Carver, 1987.” 11/11/1987. WGBH Media Library & Archives. Web. October 26, 2016. <http://openvault.wgbh.org/catalog/V_3AD67E7A38374AFC9C2CBBF58EA2790F>.
- APA: War and Peace in the Nuclear Age; Zero Hour; Interview with Michael Carver, 1987. Boston, MA: WGBH Media Library & Archives. Retrieved from http://openvault.wgbh.org/catalog/V_3AD67E7A38374AFC9C2CBBF58EA2790F