Yeah, yeah. Some
were made during the Eisenhower administration by the Air Force itself, actually. The notion of
deterrents of course, is an ancient one. You'll find it in Thucydides, and you... it did have
discussions of deterrents in the nuclear age, and for example, you'll find it mentioned in
the... in the Finn letter report on policy in the... policy in the air age. However, these were
very general sorts of statements, and they were not linked to the notion of a capability to...
of a capability for a second-strike with the... with the... your nuclear force. Strategic forces
had generally been... had as their traditional targets, war-supporting industry in an era when
that was theoretically, separable from... from population. And definitely separable from the
strategic forces themselves. That was what they were thought of as doing. In the course of World
War II, the distinction between war supporting industry and population tended to be blurred as
we saw in Dresden and in many other places. And the kind of thing that people were thinking of
was... about strategic forces, was... illustrated in some of the early writings on it. Country
A, that famous country, would strike the cities of Country B at nine o'clock and three hour...
hours later, Country B would strike the cities of Country A. Well that's not related to getting
a nuclear force that could survive attack. What was... what was new was the... was the
recognition that an attack that was designed specifically to surprise and destroy your nuclear
force, could be effective, could deprive you of the capability of striking second, and
therefore, if you had a force that was subject to obliteration in that way, in a surprise
attack, you would be inviting rather than deterring attack. And it was the look, which was a
detailed empirical look at how that might... that might happen, under very optimistic
assumptions even, from our standpoint, with a force that was then... that we then had, and with
the forces that we were likely to have for a long time to come. That was the new departure. That
was the difference.