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Agreement was signed, there was the decision to have the Communists withdraw to the north. That is to say, you go back to where you come from. Those people who wanted to have freedom should go to the south to live, below, that the Americans would not dare to carry the war to the North or to Communist China. So naturally they went on fighting and creating problems for the South. The American people, in the meantime, were quite opposed to the war, . What did this Agreement to Vietnam? We saw all kinds of disadvantages to South Vietnam. After the signing of the Agreement, the Communists continue to bring all kinds of weapons and ammunition into the South
Summary
General Tran Van Nhut discusses the effects of the Paris Peace Agreement, Watergate, and the withdrawal of American troops on South Vietnam. He describes the South’s continued efforts to thwart the North at the end of the War. Finally, he recounts the surrender of General Minh in 1975 and describes life under Communist rule in Vietnam.
Date Created
11/11/1981
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Video, Transcript
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Vietnam: A Television History / End of the Tunnel, The (1973 - 1975)
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of them, that while the enemy had shown that he could hit a number of South Vietnamese cities, hard, even after years of bombing, and...of search and destroy missions and all the rest of it, that he could still come out...that...that, that was terribly depressing uh, to me, at any rate. But the word came back from the embassy that, in fact, it had been a great victory for our side. The, the enemy had lost these assets, the South Vietnamese, . The cables flowed through from the military headquarters and from the Embassy in Saigon saying that we’re, we have survived, the South Vietnamese have survived, the enemy has suffered a terrible defeat, he made a great
Summary
Harry McPherson served as Special Counsel to LBJ from 1965 to 1969 and was Johnson’s chief speechwriter from 1966 to 1969. McPherson begins the interview by recalling the conflicted mood at the White House following the Tet Offensive. The optimism found in military cables and official information clashed with televised images showing the nation that the war was resulting in massive loss of human life and that a prisoner could be shot at point-blank range... more
Date Created
04/23/1981
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Video, Transcript
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Vietnam: A Television History / Tet, 1968
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. This was to go until Dien Bien Phu, until the end. Cut. Take 4, . I often forget that there were two Chinese generalissimos at that time, General Chaing Kai Shek to be sure, and the other Lu Han in the south of China. Lu Han, this was still 17th, . End Side 2 VIETNAM T 876 (SYNC) Side 1 #2810 Take 8. Camera Roll What was your
Summary
Vietnam veteran and former foreign correspondent, Frank White discusses his opinions of General Gracey. He mentions that he was gentlemanly and very gracious. He did not empathize with any particular American group, but rather viewed the Americans as another distraction. White also recounts the attitude of the French when the Vietnamese began to protest the British and American forces and the bloodshed that occurred during the Vietnamese fight for independence... more
Date Created
04/02/1981
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Video, Transcript
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, that we had pacified the whole South with this Strategic Hamlets Programs and in spite of that seeing that they have lost the guerrilla, the subversive war, the Communists dare not to escalate and since dare, and England to put an end before its time to the legislature. Never. They have to coexist until their respective term. The people cannot be summoned because the two cannot get along. We find that too, treaty of Paris has no other purpose than to assure to Vietnam as a whole — north and south — its right to recover under international grants its legitimate power. The Paris Agreement cannot therefore, serve
Summary
As the sister-in-law of President Diem, Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu was considered the first lady of South Vietnam in the late 1950s through the early 1960s. Here she argues that the Diem government was the only legitimate government in South Vietnam, that they were undermined by the United States and that the United States, therefore, paid a price. She discusses the Buddhist Crisis of 1963 and the results of the Paris Peace Accords... more
Date Created
02/11/1982
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Video, Transcript
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Vietnam: A Television History / America's Mandarin (1954 - 1963)
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of Vietnam, South Vietnam would occur, probably by the end of 1965 or early 1966. Ah. We felt that the, the situation in Vietnam was so weak and the, the North Vietnamese exploitation of that weakness was such that they, the victory would have been to the enemy, unless we put substantial U.S. combat forces in to establish a screen behind which something could be built in South Vietnam. We Americans had brought about chaos by the overthrow of Ngo Dinh Diem - I think the most stupid thing we did in Vietnam. But nonetheless, the fact was ah that we felt that if you put troops, do to the north what they were doing to our friends in the south, and ah, that the vehicle was the bombing. I always thought that the key to the war in Vietnam was in the villages of Vietnam, that to the degree to which the villagers took their own responsibility to protect themselves you would
Summary
William Colby was a high-ranking CIA officer during the Vietnam War. He would later direct the Agency. Here he recalls the CIA’s assessment of the Vietnam War in 1965 and the failure of the US to anticipate the Tet Offensive. He discusses the Phoenix Program, which he directed, describing its impact on the War. Finally, he recounts events surrounding the Fall of Saigon and the end of the War, and reflects on the success or failure of US strategy in Vietnam.
Date Created
07/16/1981
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Video, Transcript
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Vietnam T-879 Sound Roll 2638 George Ball Special reference tone minus 8 d.b. This is Vietnam T888, WGBH TV Boston. This is May 18, 1981. Sound roll 2638. This is presence only for sound rolls #2636 and #2637, 60 cycle reference tone, 7-1/2 ips. 24 frames per second monorecording. Okay. That's the end of presence. I'll start before you start rolling so you can just say stop. I wanted to start with the Kennedy period and ask you where Vietnam stood on ah...I'm sorry, I have to start again, . I want to jump now on to (clears throat) the period just after the Taylor-Rostow mission at the end of 1961. What was your own reaction to that mission? Taylor-Rostow Mission concluded its visit and came back with a series of reports
Summary
George W. Ball served in the State Department under Presidents Kennedy and Johnson, and later as Ambassador to the United Nations. He describes the early Johnson Administration as a period of “drift” when the US was becoming increasingly involved in Vietnam, a trend Ball opposed in numerous memos and meetings. Ball discusses his role as the voice of dissent within the Johnson administration, arguing that they learn from mistakes previously committed by the French in Vietnam... more
Date Created
05/18/1981
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themselves were having terrific morale problems too. Ah. Terrific by their own standards. Ah. Nothing to equal the morale problems that finally beset the South Vietnamese. But, they were having morale problems. In part because ah the South ah the cease-fire had been presented to them as the end of the war, terrific casualties from this war. Every year from 1965 up to the end of the war itself at the very least sixty thousand to a hundred thousand North Vietnamese boys had been sent down that trail system through Laos into South Vietnam and never come back. Ah. Every year. So, they had, ... Beep. Beep. Beep. End of Snd. Roll 2420. Frank Snepp Vietnam TVPO13 Snd Roll #2421 Frank Snepp Can we talk again about was there anyone in the South Vietnamese government who really didn't believe that the American stories
Summary
Frank Snepp was the former chief analyst of North Vietnamese strategy for the CIA in Saigon. Snepp recalls the decision of the American forces to pull out of Vietnam. He discusses that Nguyen Van Thieu’s cousin, Hoang Duc Nha was the sole member of the South Vietnamese government who did not believe that the Americans would continue to send support and tried to warn Nguyen Van Thieu not to rely on the Americans... more
Date Created
10/14/1981
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Video, Transcript
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Vietnam: A Television History / End of the Tunnel (1973 - 1975)
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reaction when the demonstrations and the media uh uh comments. Did you think that the U.S. support for South Vietnam was running out? End of Roll Roll 662 Clapstick (Phone rings) Near the end of the American involvement when there is all the American uh, people and the American wealth and money, and didn't this have a real effect on South Vietnamese customs, them. I mean you could stop the invasion of the Communists. You can't just fight within South Vietnam? There
Summary
Nguyen Cao Ky served as Prime Minister of South Vietnam from 1965 until 1967 and then Vice President unti 1971. Nguyen Cao Ky recalls wanting to move the war north as a way to stop the Communists from infilitrating South Vietnam. As much as Nguyen Cao Ky wanted to see a unified Vietnam, he knew that was not possible and that the higher priority was to stop the spread of communism. Nguyen Cao Ky also talks about the Buddhist unrest in 1964 and his arrangement for the departure of Nguyen Khnah.
Date Created
05/07/1981
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Video, Transcript
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would diminish, and these South Vietnamese leaders would be able to consolidate their own power so that they could stay in power and if, by any chance, the war were to end suddenly ah, during the time they were there, they didn’t know what their own situation was. So, toward the end...of the period, VietnamClark CliffordSR #2636Tape 1, Side 1(Tone)... That’s the reference tone at minus 8DB. This is the...Vietnam project film T888, WGBH Boston. It’s May 18th, 1981. This is Sound Roll #2636, starting with Camera Roll #665, Scene 15, Take 1...60-cycle reference tone, 7½ ips, 242 frames per second, , and it looked like, possibly, we were getting near the end. It was toward the end of ’67 that...our military said, well, we can see the end of the tunnel at this time. And there was some talk that some of our men might even be back by Christmas. That has a great tendency to minimize and allay concerns that you
Summary
Clark Clifford served as Lyndon Johnson’s Secretary of Defense. He discusses the effects of Eisenhower’s “domino theory” on his initial thinking about Vietnam and how this changed after he visited the country. He recalls behind–the-scenes efforts to convince the President to pursue peace after the Tet Offensive, and recalls Johnson’s announcement that he would not run for re-election in March of 1968. Finally, he describes the attitudes of the South Vietnamese toward American involvement and characterizes the war as, in his opinion, a mistake.
Date Created
05/18/1981
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Video, Transcript
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Vietnam: A Television History / Tet, 1968
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around a ah, quote and unquote coalition government which they disguised under this name or that name. And ah, as I told you before, we in South Vietnam always were told after the end of each meeting what had transpired. We did not even, uh, have the benefit of, uh, seeing, was that my mother wanted me to come home. All of my friends on the same promotion either deserted, went to Canada or ended up marrying an American girl to stay here, but ah, I just ah well, you know, just to go back to my question I say war was not alien to me. I say if I were, or was it paternalism or what, how would you as a senior South Vietnamese official on your later period, '68 onwards, how did they treat you? (sigh) For me, first of all, before the ah crucial negotiation days ah let's see before '71, our relationship
Summary
Hoang Duc Nha was an American-educated Minister of Information for South Vietnam—and cousin and Special Adviser to President Thieu—until 1974. He lived for three years in the United States in the early 1960’s before returning to Vietnam at his mother’s request in 1965. He describes finding a dramatically changed country, with a changed government and a large American presence. He offers his impressions of different American leaders, including Presidents Johnson and Nixon. He also recounts many stories surrounding the negotiation of the Paris Peace Accord.
Date Created
05/09/1981
Media
Video, Transcript