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, Mrs. Woodrow Wilson, the widow of the President, all sorts of cabinet and other notable people, the Boston Symphony Orchestra under the White Russian director Serge Koussevitzky, and we all ended up singing The Internationale and the Star Spangled Banner. That's the kind, , persuasion of Marxism. Some were Trotskyites, some were Stanlinists, et cetera. And a lot of these people, a number of these people, not a lot, a number of these people turned out to be traitors. In the end, when, when we got around many years later, going back and looking at this period, committed communist till the end. And it washed out large numbers of American Marxists. Historically it was one of the great traumas of the left in American history. OKAY. I'M SORRY FOR THE INTERRUPTION. WOULD, SO THE PEOPLE WHO WERE INTERESTED IN MARXISM
Summary
Chalmers Roberts was a long-time journalist who covered international and diplomatic affairs beginning in the late 1930s, joining The Washington Post in 1949. He begins by describing life in the United States in the post-depression 1930s and the growth of interest in Marxism. For many of these Americans, the Hitler-Stalin pact was a turning point... more
Date Created
03/02/1986
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War and Peace in the Nuclear Age / Dawn
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it down and packaged it in ( ), we've made it available to Man on the earth, and we don't quite understand it yet. I don't think I do at all. [END OF TAPE C02003, and establishing itself. And we were going to use surface burst nuclear weapons to fission diffuse, and fallout patterns were quite beyond what we expected at first. These were very critical. And they were to, in the end, cause some several hundred, with that shot, we began, it reminded me -- it was an awful fallout problem. We didn't realize how serious it was. Dr. Warren came to me from Boston College and told me about strontium-90 from the weapons would be into the grass, the cows would eat
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Gen. James Gavin was the Army's chief of research and development in the 1950s. In this interview, he discusses in depth the often parochial thinking and motivations that underlay decisions by the uniformed services and the Pentagon regarding the development of nuclear weapons. Beginning with the Korean War, he recounts discussions with several nuclear scientists being escorted around the theater over the need to build tactical nuclear weapons to aid on the battlefield... more
Date Created
02/25/1986
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War and Peace in the Nuclear Age / Weapon of Choice, The
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WHAT THAT... That's true there was a crisis. It was uh, soon after Truman became president and uh, there had been uh, a treaty signed at the end of the war that the British and the United States, concern uh, about Cuba and uh, Castro,...a feeling that the, for some reason the Eisenhower administration had been rather soft on Castro, soft on Communism and indeed uh, uh, soft in uh, Indonesia or South Vietnam, . See I came in three or four months after the Bay of Pigs. And uh, in that interval uh, Castro had made his arrangements of, in Moscow and troops actually had been sent over. [END OF TAPE 004035
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John McCone served as Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from 1958-1960 and Director of Central Intelligence from 1961-1965. In this interview he discusses the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. He begins with a story about another nuclear crisis, the Iranian crisis at the end of World War II, in which he says President Truman threatened to bomb the Soviet Union if it did not evacuate northern Iran... more
Date Created
03/04/1986
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War and Peace in the Nuclear Age / Europe Goes Nuclear
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nuclear weapons must be eliminated. At first there was a huge petition drive. In Hiroshima Prefecture, at the end there were one million signatures. At that time, the population of Hiroshima was two million. One million signatures, conference on nuclear and hydrogen bombs. All the way from that time, this was the form of the organization, an organization that ran mass meetings, this continued all the way until the split, defended against this increase in countries with nuclear capability, hasn't it? [END OF TAPE 009109] WHAT EXPERIENCES AND REASONS WERE BEHIND THE THREE NON-NUCLEAR PRINCIPLES? WAS IT THE RESULT
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Ichiro Moritaki was a Professor emeritus Hiroshima University, a survivor of atomic blast at Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945, and a peace activist. In the interview he starts by describing his personal recollections of the atomic blast. He says, "the whole world was wrapped in a whitish-blue light." He lost his right eye to a glass shard from a broken window during the blast... more
Date Created
02/26/1987
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War and Peace in the Nuclear Age / Carter's New World
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safeguard system. And to that end the Atomic Energy Agency was to be set up at that time and particularly in the Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program under which research reactors, small research reactors were supplied to a number, AND ON PROLIFERATION AT THE END OF THE FIFTIES THERE? The proliferation debate had not really commenced in the fifties. It was in the early sixties m... that I think the Irish delegation at that time put forward a proposal, . I'M ONLY INTERESTED IN PAKISTAN'S ROLE IN THAT. Pakistan was most interested of course, along with other countries, in the control of nuclear weapons because the outbreak of nuclear war would end of all countries
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Agha Shahi was Pakistani Ambassador to the United Nations from 1967-1972, then Secretary of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1973-1982 (with a short break in between). In the interview he talks about Pakistan, the IAEA and the nonproliferation debates of the 1950s. While he was concerned about India, Israel, and South Africa on the latter score, he recalls a feeling of admiration at China’s nuclear successes... more
Date Created
02/07/1987
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War and Peace in the Nuclear Age / Haves and Have-nots
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engineering, program infrastructure, first-strike capability. It's -- you got to go on and on and on. You can't just make two bombs, then stop. And both countries will be caught in this nuclear rush. And by the end of the century we will have a kind of South, . At the time I was the Chief of Staff of an infantry division near the front. And we were rather proud that we had taken on the biggest military power in South Asia, in our region. And at that time we thought we'd won the war. And later on we thought -- we, are very proud of what we had achieved. Our troops had fought magnificently. We'd taken on a military power much bigger than our own and had the war ending in a draw and I think it was quite an achievement for us. So much for '65
Summary
Agha Ibrahim Akram was a lieutenant general who served in the Pakistan Army during the 1965 and 1971 wars with India. The interview Akram conducted for War and Peace in the Nuclear Age concentrates on the history of tension and conflict between Pakistan and India... more
Date Created
02/09/1987
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War and Peace in the Nuclear Age / Carter's New World
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and in the combined policy committee which was set up during the war. And we were, of course, quite close to the Australians who were very anxious for information and South Africa was a member of the commonwealth at that time, and India, and Pakistan. We had close, wanted which they could give. And we were also interested in getting thorium from India. At that time thorium was thought to be an important material for nuclear fuel, and there are large deposits of thorium in South India, information about the Chinese program from him but he managed to evade all our questions and then. Oh, well, there was a representative from the Scandinavian countries, from South America, from Yugoslavia. There was a Russian physicist
Summary
Lord Roger Sherfield (Roger Makins) spent most of his career in the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office, serving as Ambassador to the United States from 1953-1956. He was Chairman of UK Atomic Energy Commission from 1960-1964... more
Date Created
12/15/1986
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War and Peace in the Nuclear Age / Carter's New World
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in the problem of conventional war. That's what people have not realized yet. That's where our education hasn't gotten up to that point yet. At the end of World War II, or even going back further to the creation of nuclear weapons; United States started a nuclear program in the middle of World War II out of fear that Germany might have a nuclear program. But in the spring of 1945 when Germany was defeated and we discovered they did not have a nuclear program, our program didn't end. It went right ahead. We made the first three nuclear bombs. We tested one in the desert in Alamogordo and we used the other two on Japanese cities ostensibly in order to end a non-nuclear conventional war. So right from the very beginning our nuclear policy has been tied up with fears of non-nuclear conventional
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Dr. Randall Forsberg was executive director of the think tank she founded in 1980, the Institute for Defense and Disarmament Studies... more
Date Created
03/03/1988
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War and Peace in the Nuclear Age / Visions of War and Peace
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and all countries in the world sign a non-proliferation treaty. [END OF TAPE 657000] I'M GOING BACK FOR A FEW YEARS. THE SOVIET UNION TERMINATED ITS, THE TREATY AT THE TIME? For me, that's past history (before my time). That was a time of very active contact between the US and USSR, beginning in the middle of the '60s, nearer the end of the first half, that it's important to have full control over the actions of a nuclear state. Not only over its exports and imports, but over all actions. And the US only admitted that under Carter at the end of the '70s. But several western
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Yuri Davydov was an analyst at the USA-Canada Institute, a think tank in Moscow. Here, he provides insights into Soviet perceptions about a range of nuclear-related issues during the Cold War. Most of the questions deal with Moscow's views on proliferation, from the days of Atoms for Peace to development of the Chinese bomb to the potential or actual acquisition of a weapon by the likes of India, Pakistan, South Africa and Israel... more
Date Created
12/09/1986
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. I'll put them in at the end. O.K., READY? Now, you want me to go all the way back to the beginning, . I'm Herbert York. I'm a physicist, I've spent my entire life either making weapons or talking peace. THAT'S TERRIFIC. WE'LL HAVE TO FIND A GOOD END TO IT THOUGH. JUST MAKE THE SENTENCE END WHEN YOU DO IT. Well, I don't know any better end than that. NO, I MEAN THE CADENCE. IT SOUNDED LIKE YOU WERE GOING TO GO ON
Summary
Herbert York was a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project, was the Director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory from 1952-1958, and served as a member of the President's Science Advisory Committee from 1957-1968. From the end of 1958 to April 1961 he was Director of Defense Research and Engineering. Later he worked on various arms control issues. This lengthy interview begins with Dr. York's background and his impressions of working on the Manhattan Project... more
Date Created
03/12/1988
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War and Peace in the Nuclear Age / Visions of War and Peace