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, that the investment in any given item that is produced – whether it is a TV program or a Hollywood movie or a big mass magazine, any individual issue – is so such an enormous investment, that they must find a great denominator in terms of audience, whether it is the lowest common denominator or not. The risk is too, and ratings that they can get. That's right. The total cost of network broadcasting for a sponsor – this universal cross-country thing – is so fantastic, the necessity to get the greatest mass audience, that industries that can afford this, , and I suppose they feel that when you consider the mass audience there are certain limitations, certain criteria that they feel forced to apply to TV that do not apply to newspapers. Well, it's the sense of television, it's the sense
Summary
Louis Lyons moderates a discussion between Eric Sevareid, Chief Washington Correspondent, CBS News; Martin Agronsky, Commentator, NBC News. Quote from Eric Sevareid “The bigger our information media, the less courage and freedom of expression they allow. Bigness means weakness”. Quote from Martin Agronsky “The special story, the report in depth, becomes more and more difficult to keep on the air because of the tremendous rising costs of TV production”... more
Date Created
01/24/1959
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Video, Transcript
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Press And The People, The: An Inquiry Into The Work Of The American Press In Informing The American People / Television News Commentator, The
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of the format. Now, many people are certainly familiar with your evening broadcast on radio. You run over the news, and then you do a powerful editorial piece at the end. I think that anyone who becomes familiar with the Murrow program knows that the piece at the end is his editorial. That’s one way, ? I think there is a real danger, and I think there is also a danger that we may get involved in semantics here, but let’s try it anyway if you’re agreeable. I do not regard the end five or six minutes that I do on radio as an editorial, and that requires a little explaining. I do not advocate action, that in most countries the radio and television operations are an accurate reflection of the political, social and economic climate in which they grew. And that if you compared, for example, the BBC in England and commercial broadcasting here, you would end up with a comparison between Britain and the United
Summary
Louis Lyons continues his interview with America’s foremost television journalist Edward R. Murrow on the state of television broadcasting. Murrow believes that the program structure is in imbalance, and that the American television audience is being fed a diet of programming that insulates them from the realities of the world around. Louis Lyons talks to Murrow about the relationship between media broadcasting and press journalism.
Date Created
01/24/1959
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Press And The People, The: An Inquiry Into The Work Of The American Press In Informing The American People / Responsibilities Of Television, The; Part II
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! Well, now your special report on Africa was another great picture that I’m sure is remembered. This dealt, among other things, with the aspirations of the Negros and the way they’re treated in Africa. I wonder to what extent that encountered any banning in the South here. No problem, . Yes. Well, now just the other day, January 21, you did this program on the last class of 1959, that is the closed schools of Norfolk, Virginia. Pretty soon to have gotten complete reaction, but what sort of reaction, in the South particularly? Well, it’s a little early to tell what the reaction was in the South, but as an old and experienced and much wiser journalist than I am, you would agree I think, Mr. Lyons, that the real test of a program or a piece in print is whether people involved – those who live there – believe it to be a fair
Summary
Following closely on from his speech to a professional group in Chicago, where he made the following quote “Surely we shall pay for using this most powerful instrument of communications to insulate the citizenry from the hard and demanding realities that must be faced if we are to survive”, Louis Lyons interviews America’s foremost television journalist Edward R. Murrow on the state of television broadcasting... more
Date Created
01/24/1959
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Video, Transcript
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Press And The People, The: An Inquiry Into The Work Of The American Press In Informing The American People / Responsibilities Of Television, The; Part I
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and make the point that when you have a mass point of view, a generality in the point of view, you are bound to have that reflected in the press. There's no reason why...Look what happened during the recession. Everyone in April and May a lot of people were saying - or not everyone, but a lot of pe— were, . I get that impression from year-end reviews and so on. Well, look, year-end reviews are a happy time. I mean, New Year's celebrations are good times, and people feel good. If you notice, immediately after the New Year, a suggestion that a story ought to be on the front page, it's considered. I don't mean that it goes on the front page. And I'm sure that is true in certain of the papers in Boston, and certainly in Washington Post and other large papers. Dr
Summary
Louis Lyons introduces Dr. John Kenneth Galbraith, professor of economics, Harvard University and author of the bestselling book “The Affluent Society” and Joseph A. Livingston, author of the book “The American Stockholder”. Galbraith believes “one of the most disastrous trends in the newspaper business is the notion that all a reporter needs is a strong pair of legs and a sharp pencil... more
Date Created
01/12/1959
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Press And The People, The: An Inquiry Into The Work Of The American Press In Informing The American People / Economic Facts Of Life, The
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trouble holding up our end, well, that idea was just unthinkable. That's why Korea came as such a shock, and it's still a shock to pick up a paper or tune in the radio and hear that we may be on the brink of war again with China. How did we get in such a fix? Mr. Louis Lyons, I am addressing that question, broke. The Chinese had a way of chilling an egg and standing it on end so it stood up. It caught the imagination of all the editors in the USA. Any correspondent who filed the story about the egg standing on end got by-lines, got pictures, got a play across the country. If you did the difficult, important stories of the negotiations that were to lead to civil war, you got maybe one paragraph down at the end. Our editors and our publishers have to sell papers and make money. The really important interpretive stuff does not pull circulation; or at least most editors feel
Summary
Penn Kimball poses the question “What about Communist China? Louis Lyons moderates a discussion between Theodore H. White, author and foreign correspondent and John K. Fairbank, Associate Director for Asian Studies, Harvard University. Quote from Theodore White “The greatest unreported revolution in modern times is taking place in Communist China, and the American people are almost totally ignorant about what is taking place”. Quote from John K... more
Date Created
12/13/1958
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Video, Transcript
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Press And The People, The: An Inquiry Into The Work Of The American Press In Informing The American People / News From China, The
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? That's right. I remember an old buddy in Chicago years ago who came to an untimely end, Big Tim Murphy, a labor racketeer. He never liked reporters, and be used to say – give any punk $25 a week and a pencil and no man's reputation is safe, foisted off on the public by President Eisenhower personally and by Attorney General Brownell and now Rogers. And the press up to this point has not exhibited the fear that it should for this, because if our laws, passed by Congress, from one end of Pennsylvania Avenue down to the other end, administer them as they please, spend the money as they please, you have executive dictatorship. And there's no kidding about it. Has the Moss committee ever told the Panama Canal Company to make public the names of the free
Summary
Louis Lyons interviews Clark Mollenhoff, Washington correspondent, Des Moines Register, Minneapolis Star and other Cowles Publications and Edwin Lahey, Chief Washington Bureau, Chicago Daily News, Detroit Free Press and other Knight Newspapers on the topic of secrecy in government. Clark Mollenhoff is quoted as saying “our federal administration is practicing a doctrine of secrecy which carries in it seeds of dictatorship... more
Date Created
01/03/1959
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Video, Transcript
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Press And The People, The: An Inquiry Into The Work Of The American Press In Informing The American People / Secrecy In Government
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-Journal. In the early stages of this crisis most of these editorials seemed to be simply stating or trying to interpret what was happening, and ending with a "Let's be firm." I think perhaps, however, that Mr. Warburg may have overlooked the highly critical position of the Courier-Journal. Ever since the beginning, , even though we in the end may have rejected it, simply to encourage the Poles in something that to us and to them is very, very important – and that is that they should begin to develop an independent line, independent of the Soviet Union, an independent life in the international, in the international, . Well, thank you Mr. Daniel. It's refreshing to find the newspaperman turn critic of the newspapers, and Mr. Warburg, the critic, defending them. And I'm afraid we've come to the end of our time. Thank you, gentlemen. Only a half dozen of our greatest newspapers maintain
Summary
Louis Lyons continues his interview with Clifton Daniels and James P. Warburg on press coverage of the Berlin Crisis. Filmed a short while after Nikita Khrushchev’s ultimatum to the West, that within 6 months the Soviets would withdraw from East Berlin and turn over power there to East Germany, Louis Lyons interviews Clifton Daniels of the News York Times and the lecturer and writer, James P. Warburg, on the emerging crisis in Berlin... more
Date Created
02/14/1959
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Video, Transcript
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Press And The People, The: An Inquiry Into The Work Of The American Press In Informing The American People / Berlin Story,The; Part II
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of it yesterday and this morning when The New York Times broke the story about firing the Argus experiment in the South Atlantic. After sitting on it for six months. After sitting
Summary
Louis Lyons interviews Walter Millis, lecturer and writer on U.S... more
Date Created
1959
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Video, Transcript
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Press And The People, The: An Inquiry Into The Work Of The American Press In Informing The American People / Press and Foreign Policy, The
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bargaining negotiations ended with peaceful settlements and only three percent of these negotiations resulted in any loss of work from strikes or lockouts. Yet I venture to say that in terms of the attention the newspapers gave our activities, 97 percent of the attention paid to us by the newspapers went, . We had not at that time. I have seen only two or three since our editorial. No newspaper in the country, so far as I know, commented favorably uh, on the fact that fewer strikes began last year than in any other year since the end of World War II. Uh, this was true as of almost three weeks after
Summary
Louis Lyons interview Sam Romer, labor editor, Minneapolis Tribune and Gordon Cole, public relations director, International Association of Machinists – asking the question “Is our day-to-day newspaper coverage giving us the essential facts abut organized labor in the United States”. Gordon Cole talks about the continual bad press given to labor unions and labor relations in the United States – a fascinating snapshot in time into labor unions in the 1950’s.
Date Created
02/07/1959
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Video, Transcript
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Press And The People, The: An Inquiry Into The Work Of The American Press In Informing The American People / Labor and The Press
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of our daily newspapers." Our other guest has been a newspaperman for thirty-six years. He began as a reporter on the Portland Oregonian and ended as its publisher less than ten years later. Since 1946 he has been editor and publisher, . He doesn't have to worry about that rag across the street, which he could always use as an alibi for sensationalism, for instance. Mr. Hoyt, will sensationalism end? Does it tend to diminish in these good newspapers you've mentioned, when there's no longer any competition
Summary
Louis Lyons interviews Elmo Roper, public opinion analyst, and Palmer Hoyt, editor and publisher of The Denver Post. He poses the questions “What is the job of a newspaper? Is it to give the public what it wants, or should the newspaper give the public what it needs to be informed?” Roper is quoted as saying “When we criticize our press we ought to remember one important fact – to most Americans, reading is a difficult experience; it is plain hard work... more
Date Created
03/12/1959
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Video, Transcript
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Press And The People, The: An Inquiry Into The Work Of The American Press In Informing The American People / Public and The Publisher, The