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. This was to go until Dien Bien Phu, until the end. Cut. Take 4, . I often forget that there were two Chinese generalissimos at that time, General Chaing Kai Shek to be sure, and the other Lu Han in the south of China. Lu Han, this was still 17th, . End Side 2 VIETNAM T 876 (SYNC) Side 1 #2810 Take 8. Camera Roll What was your
Summary
Vietnam veteran and former foreign correspondent, Frank White discusses his opinions of General Gracey. He mentions that he was gentlemanly and very gracious. He did not empathize with any particular American group, but rather viewed the Americans as another distraction. White also recounts the attitude of the French when the Vietnamese began to protest the British and American forces and the bloodshed that occurred during the Vietnamese fight for independence... more
Date Created
04/02/1981
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Vietnam T-879 Sound Roll 2638 George Ball Special reference tone minus 8 d.b. This is Vietnam T888, WGBH TV Boston. This is May 18, 1981. Sound roll 2638. This is presence only for sound rolls #2636 and #2637, 60 cycle reference tone, 7-1/2 ips. 24 frames per second monorecording. Okay. That's the end of presence. I'll start before you start rolling so you can just say stop. I wanted to start with the Kennedy period and ask you where Vietnam stood on ah...I'm sorry, I have to start again, . I want to jump now on to (clears throat) the period just after the Taylor-Rostow mission at the end of 1961. What was your own reaction to that mission? Taylor-Rostow Mission concluded its visit and came back with a series of reports
Summary
George W. Ball served in the State Department under Presidents Kennedy and Johnson, and later as Ambassador to the United Nations. He describes the early Johnson Administration as a period of “drift” when the US was becoming increasingly involved in Vietnam, a trend Ball opposed in numerous memos and meetings. Ball discusses his role as the voice of dissent within the Johnson administration, arguing that they learn from mistakes previously committed by the French in Vietnam... more
Date Created
05/18/1981
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regime not only did not implement the clauses of the agreement but also carried out repression against families who had members who regrouped to the north. The relatives of these people in the south were, Agreement allowed us to remain in the south. But after that we had to go underground; that is to say, to live in tunnels. But in spite of the repression, the population really loved the cadres and took care of them, Nam, Danang, Hue and other areas in the South. In prisons, the tortures were more barbaric than in any previous period. As far as Quang Nam was concerned, let me tell you a typical situation. Women who were faithful to their husbands
Summary
Dr. Pham Thi Xuan Que lived in a village in South Vietnam under the leadership of Ngo Dinh Diem. She describes many of the repressive tactics used by Diem’s secret police, including various forms of torture. Dr. Que tells of how the National Liberation Front enjoyed widespread support within Hue, and of the events surrounding the NLF’s capture and subsequent evacuation of Hue during the Tet Offensive.
Date Created
02/29/1981
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started this struggle in this area at the beginning of 1960. But by mid 1960 and by the end of 1960 people all over the South did likewise. This is to say, political struggles in coordination with military struggles in a general offensive against the enemy. Later on, when, the end of 1960 that other provinces followed suit. It was only later on, when the movement became widespread, that we began to be in frequent contact with our superiors. By that time there was now a general uprising in all of the south. As I found out, in the West the strongest movement was in Tay Ninh, the province of Ben Tre and a number of local areas elsewhere. But the movement there was not as strong as ours. But from the middle of the year to the end of the year the movement became widespread in all of the South.
Summary
South Vietnamese Major General Le Minh Dai led the ARVN 18th Division at Xuan Loc, the last major battle of the Vietnam War. He describes leading resistance to the French government, and later to the Diem regime in the mid-1950’s following the Geneva Agreement. He outlines why he fought against the Diem regime as revenge for executions, arrests, and land appropriations. He frames the struggle against Diem in both military and political terms, thanking “progressive American people” who came out against the war for boosting the Vietnamese people’s morale.
Date Created
03/12/1981
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Vietnam: A Television History / America’s Mandarin (1954 - 1963)
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for 1975 and 1976 for the complete liberation of the South were then decided on. There was a contingency plan which stated that if the opportunity permitted either at the beginning or at the end of 1975, the liberation of the South should take place at once in that year. Therefore, the plans for the General Offensive and Uprisings which led to the victory in 1975 were decided on in these historical meetings, of the battlefront in the South into two halves. The second military campaign was the campaign to destroy the enemy in Hue and Da Nang, which was their I Corps area. The coordination of the Central Highland Campaign
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General Van Tien Dung recounts the origins of the communist party military organization in Vietnam. He discusses their preparations for the liberation of South Vietnam and the Siege of Saigon in 1975. Finally, he reflects on what victory against American forces meant for Vietnam.
Date Created
02/19/1981
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Vietnam: A Television History / End of the Tunnel, The (1973 - 1975)
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activities, I think what you, friend, would like to refer to here is a trick by Nhu to scare the United States. But this was the wrong move on their part. Servants can never out finesse their masters. Therefore in the end, was your view of the situation in the South after Diem's assassination? And the background of the so-called Tonkin Gulf Incident? Let me talk mainly about this Tonkin Gulf, , to connect the North and the South. Naturally the United States used every means at her disposal to block this trail. But all to no avail. The Ho Chi Minh Trail developed day by day and became a system of roads over which
Summary
Pham Van Dong was an associate of Ho Chi Minh, and served as Prime Minister of North Vietnam from 1955 – 1976, and then as Prime Minister of reunified Vietnam from 1976 – 1987. Mr. Dong recalls life under French colonial rule, his imprisonment, and the early work of the Viet Minh. He describes the negotiations with the French to end the Indochinese War, and the failure to implement the Geneva Accords... more
Date Created
02/19/1981
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Clapstick Now your mission in the South in the end of 1963, after the downfall of Diem. During the last months of 1963 we had the shooting of Diem and the assassination, the Command of the Campaign was headed by General Vo Nguyen Giap who made the decision to put an end to this attack based on the human wave tactic. The entire plan was changed. The attack was stopped and all the heavy artillery pieces were pulled back to a distance. Then strong, put a temporary end to the war and created the bases for future gains. At that time we were also happy because our troops did not have to fight in the war anymore and the situation was poised for a period of political struggle. But looking back, I should frankly admit that we
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Bui Tin, a former People’s Army of Vietnam Colonel and Vietnamese dissident recounts the arrival of the Chinese army in 1945 and the changes to the Viet Minh following the victory of the Chinese Revolution. Bui Tin also recalls his service in the 304th division and the victory at Dien Bien Phu which led to Vietnam being divided into south and north territories. Also discussed is the reasoning behind the eventual decision to escalate the war.
Date Created
02/20/1981
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good. That's not... End of SR #6F. VIETNAM TVP 002 AMBASSADOR ALEXIS JOHNSON SR #7F ch This is Sound Roll #7F, WGBH, TVP 002 Vietnam, eventually it was agreed that Foster would meet Mendès France in Paris ah and they would discuss the situation there. I ah accompanied...this was shortly before the end of the conference...I accompanied Mendès France to Paris and we had some thirty-six hours of very, very intense, intense meetings, between the North and the South. It started with the ah Viet Minh insisting that it be drawn just north of Saigon and ah with the French insisting it be drawn just north, south of Hanoi and the ah final final agreement was that it would be brought, drawn at the ah 17th parallel, which very importantly
Summary
Deputy Ambassador to the Republic of Vietnam, Alexis Johnson recalls the 1954 Geneva Conference when the French were pressuring the United States to send additional assistance to their battle in Vietnam in the form of air raids. Johnson recalls trying to form a pact with the other countries at the Conference regarding collective action against communist aggression in Vietnam. Johnson recalls the US view of the Vietnamese conflict as a fluid one in which the French were the major players... more
Date Created
07/02/1982
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Vietnam: A Television History / First Vietnam War, The (1946 - 1954)
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that was trying to overthrow them and set up a new political system. In Vietnam, the officials in South Vietnam were either foreign — meaning French — or were appointed Vietnamese, so that the association and image that they gave to the people was not of being their own officials, . End Part One
Summary
General Edward Geary Lansdale was an advisor to French forces on special counter-guerrilla operations against the Viet Minh. From 1954 to 1957 he was in Saigon and served as an advisor to the American-backed government of South Vietnam. Lansdale recalls his experience fighting communist groups in the Philippines and credits that success for his being called to duty for Vietnam. Lansdale discusses the differences between fighting in the Philippines and Vietnam... more
Date Created
01/31/1979
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Vietnam: A Television History / America's Mandarin (1954 - 1963)
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. It’s...I was relatively optimistic about the state of the war towards the end of ’67, uh, but I should frame that, uh, response by telling you the position I took in April of ’67. That was when Westmoreland came back and asked for additional troops, uh, something like a quarter of a million, , and by decisively, I don’t mean heavier bombing, I mean that we should go into North Vietnam as far north as Vinh and when the weather’s right, on to the Ho Chi Minh Trails with US forces, and force an ending of the war on the ground.” And that was the view that I held, and, uh, because I, intermediate strategy. And at the end of ’67, I was optimistic for these reasons: First, there was no doubt at all there had been military progress since we came in mid ’65; there had been extraordinary political progress, and economic progress, including a turnaround in agricultural policy, where they finally
Summary
Walt Rostow served as Special Assistant for National Security Affairs for Presidents Kennedy and Johnson. In this capacity, he played a significant role in shaping U.S. policy in Southeast Asia. He discusses his optimism for the war through 1967, and even more so after the Tet Offensive. Mr. Rostow describes the positions of fellow administration insiders such as Clark Clifford, Dean Rusk, and the Wise Men... more
Date Created
04/20/1981
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Vietnam: A Television History / Tet, 1968