War and Peace in the Nuclear Age; Europe Goes Nuclear; Interview with Roger Hilsman, 1986
Part of War and Peace in the Nuclear Age.
Roger Hilsman was Assistant Secretary of State for Intelligence and Research and an adviser to President Kennedy. In the interview he discusses the Cuban missile crisis. He describes the findings of the U.S. intelligence community regarding the issue of missiles in Cuba, and gives his views about different aspects of the crisis, including his belief that the warheads never reached the island. He explains that he does not think nuclear superiority was a major factor in resolving the crisis; rather it was the political aspects of the nuclear age that were more important. He argues that the two sides were never on the brink of nuclear war, but that it was a very serious nuclear crisis. In his view, war of any kind between nuclear powers is impossible in the current period, even in the unlikely event the Reagan administration is able to make the Strategic Defense Initiative operational. (As an aside, he criticizes the Reagan administration for trying to rehabilitate war.) Returning to the crisis, he recounts several anecdotes, including John Scalis role, the fears average Americans felt at the time, and his reporting to President Kennedy that a U-2 pilot had flown over the Soviet Union. Asked about lessons from the crisis, he comments that it is now impossible for the U.S. and Soviets to go to war because of the risk of it becoming nuclear.
- War and Peace in the Nuclear Age
- Europe Goes Nuclear
- Program Number
Interview with Roger Hilsman, 1986
- Series Description
The first atomic explosion in the New Mexico desert on July 16, 1945, changed the world forever. This series chronicles these changes and the history of a new era. It traces the development of nuclear weapons, the evolution of nuclear strategy, and the politics of a world with the power to destroy itself.
In thirteen one-hour programs that combine historic footage and recent interviews with key American, Soviet, and European participants, the nuclear age unfolds: the origin and evolution of nuclear weapons; the people of the past who have shaped the events of the present; the ideas and issues that political leaders, scientists, and the public at large must confront, and the prospects for the future. Nuclear Age highlights the profound changes in contemporary thinking imposed by the advent of nuclear weapons. Series release date: 1/1989
- Program Description
France and England rush to acquire their own nuclear weapons, NATO worries about the threat from the East, and Europe becomes the most nuclear-saturated place on Earth.
British and American scientists worked side by side to build the first nuclear bombs. “There was a strong desire on the British side for that collaboration to continue into peacetime. There was no such desire on the part of the United States,” recalls British diplomat Roger Makins, Lord Sherfield. Britain decided to proceed on its own and in 1952 joined the US and the Soviets in what pundits would call “the nuclear club.” General Charles De Gaulle, president of France, wanted to join the club, too, and not rely on the US for nuclear protection. Prestige was also an issue. In 1960, France exploded its first atomic weapon. Since World War II the Soviet Union had had a superiority in conventional forces in Europe. NATO countered by deploying thousands of nuclear weapons. “They were accepted as being perfectly reasonable weapons to use in a tactical battle in continental Europe,” said Sir Richard Powell of the British Defense Ministry.
- Asset Type
- Media Type
- Kennedy, Robert F., 1925-1968
- Scali, John
- Nuclear weapons
- Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
- Soviet Union
- United States. Central Intelligence Agency
- Korean War, 1950-1953
- Intermediate-range ballistic missiles
- Smith, Gerard C.
- Rusk, Dean, 1909-1994
- Photographic reconnaissance systems
- Lippmann, Walter, 1889-1974
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization
- Castro, Fidel, 1926-
- Reagan, Ronald
- Bundy, McGeorge
- Aerial photography
- United States
- Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeevich, 1894-1971
- Bundy, McGeorge
- McCone, John A. (John Alex), 1902-1991
- Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963
- Ball, George
- War and Conflict
- Global Affairs
- Hilsman, Roger (Interviewee)
- Publication Information
- WGBH Educational Foundation
- Chicago: “War and Peace in the Nuclear Age; Europe Goes Nuclear; Interview with Roger Hilsman, 1986,” 03/20/1986, WGBH Media Library & Archives, accessed May 28, 2020, http://openvault.wgbh.org/catalog/V_F6628671EEF3409B8D56342174D3707E.
- MLA: “War and Peace in the Nuclear Age; Europe Goes Nuclear; Interview with Roger Hilsman, 1986.” 03/20/1986. WGBH Media Library & Archives. Web. May 28, 2020. <http://openvault.wgbh.org/catalog/V_F6628671EEF3409B8D56342174D3707E>.
- APA: War and Peace in the Nuclear Age; Europe Goes Nuclear; Interview with Roger Hilsman, 1986. Boston, MA: WGBH Media Library & Archives. Retrieved from http://openvault.wgbh.org/catalog/V_F6628671EEF3409B8D56342174D3707E