War and Peace in the Nuclear Age; Bigger Bang for the Buck, A; Interview with George Rathjens, 1986
Part of War and Peace in the Nuclear Age.
George Rathjens was a member of President Eisenhower's scientific staff under Science Adviser George Kistiakowsky. In the interview he discusses the U.S. Air Force Strategic Air Command (SAC) and the Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP) for nuclear war in the late 1950s, touching on the inter-service rivalries in the weapons arena that existed at the time. He describes the Eisenhower White House's investigation into SAC's nuclear strategy, including SAC's thinking about a first strike capability and the expected levels of destruction from a U.S. attack on Soviet targets. In one instance, using a Hiroshima-sized target city in the USSR for comparison, Dr. Rathjens discovered that the plan called for weapons wielding several hundred times the power of the Hiroshima bomb. He notes that the guidance for the level of destruction was set at around 90 percent, which SAC took as a minimum, and set its own levels at 97 percent. He adds that SAC maintained both military and urban industrial targets. He explains the inflexibility of SAC's targeting, and therefore of the SIOP as a whole, and describes the hypothetical effects of the SIOP, which could destroy at least 75 percent of the Soviet Union, and would have major fallout affecting China and Eastern Europe. He recalls reporting to the president on his findings about SAC's plans, and further remembers that Eisenhower was visibly upset and voiced specific reservations about SAC commander Powell. Yet, to Dr. Rathjens' surprise, the president apparently did nothing to address the situation. He does acknowledge that SAC's guidance came from the Joint Staff.
- War and Peace in the Nuclear Age
- Bigger Bang for the Buck, A
- Program Number
Interview with George Rathjens, 1986
- Series Description
The first atomic explosion in the New Mexico desert on July 16, 1945, changed the world forever. This series chronicles these changes and the history of a new era. It traces the development of nuclear weapons, the evolution of nuclear strategy, and the politics of a world with the power to destroy itself.
In thirteen one-hour programs that combine historic footage and recent interviews with key American, Soviet, and European participants, the nuclear age unfolds: the origin and evolution of nuclear weapons; the people of the past who have shaped the events of the present; the ideas and issues that political leaders, scientists, and the public at large must confront, and the prospects for the future. Nuclear Age highlights the profound changes in contemporary thinking imposed by the advent of nuclear weapons. Series release date: 1/1989
- Program Description
For the destructive power they deliver, nuclear weapons are cheap and efficient. In the 1950’s the United States begins to rely on nuclear, rather than conventional, weapons for its defense.
As nuclear policy evolved during the Eisenhower Administration, three factors combined to produce a new American reliance on nuclear weapons: pressure to control the federal budget (the “bigger bang” argument); competition as each branch of the American military adapted nuclear weapons to its mission; and Soviet bluffs that fueled American fears about a “bomber gap” and later a “missile gap.” On October 4, 1957, Sputnik, the Soviet satellite that was the first to orbit Earth, shocked Americans and delighted the Soviets. A month later, the Soviets launched Sputnik 2 with a dog on board. Both the Soviets and the Americans knew that a booster capable of carrying a dog into space could also deliver a nuclear warhead across a continent in 30 minutes.
- Asset Type
- Media Type
- Burke, Arleigh A., 1901-1996
- Photographic reconnaissance systems
- United States. Air Force. Strategic Air Command
- Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David), 1890-1969
- Hiroshima-shi (Japan) -- History -- Bombardment, 1945
- Power, Thomas S. (Thomas Sarsfield), 1905-1970
- Nuclear weapons
- Scoville, Herbert
- United States. Navy
- United States
- United States. Central Intelligence Agency
- United States. Air Force
- Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963
- Nuclear warfare
- Kistiakowsky, George B. (George Bogdan), 1900-1982
- United States. Joint Chiefs of Staff
- Soviet Union
- Global Affairs
- War and Conflict
- Rathjens, George W. (Interviewee)
- Publication Information
- WGBH Educational Foundation
- Chicago: “War and Peace in the Nuclear Age; Bigger Bang for the Buck, A; Interview with George Rathjens, 1986,” 05/30/1986, WGBH Media Library & Archives, accessed September 16, 2019, http://openvault.wgbh.org/catalog/V_9A93249305BB4FBC9CE4F8F6F52CCB56.
- MLA: “War and Peace in the Nuclear Age; Bigger Bang for the Buck, A; Interview with George Rathjens, 1986.” 05/30/1986. WGBH Media Library & Archives. Web. September 16, 2019. <http://openvault.wgbh.org/catalog/V_9A93249305BB4FBC9CE4F8F6F52CCB56>.
- APA: War and Peace in the Nuclear Age; Bigger Bang for the Buck, A; Interview with George Rathjens, 1986. Boston, MA: WGBH Media Library & Archives. Retrieved from http://openvault.wgbh.org/catalog/V_9A93249305BB4FBC9CE4F8F6F52CCB56